If dyspnea is prolonged and continuous, then it will be probably associated with a pathological condition. If the sense is sudden and serious, even if it is short, you may need medical assessment. These indicate medical problem:

  • dyspnea at rest or at bedtime
  • dyspnea during exercise or activity
  • dyspnea at exposure to allergens or irritants
  • dyspnea accompanied with pain or burning, chest pain and tightness especially when pain coexists in one or both arms, jaw, or neck
  • swollen feet (if you don’t take pills for pressure, especially calcium blockers)
  • fluid overload or unintentional weight loss with loss of appetite
  • yellow, green sticky coloured or bloody sputum with or without fever
  • hoarse breathing or stridor (something like << cats >> in the lungs)
Source: Hellenic Heart Foundation

When the swelling is due to malfunctioning veins, so swelling subsides at night, when the feet are placed on the bed at a higher level than the rest of the body. This is achieved by placing a pillow under the feet. On the contrary, swelling due to other reasons does not subside in this way. In these cases, blood flow should be investigated with ultrasound of the arteries and veins of the lower extremities and the possibility of malfunction of the heart, kidneys or liver should be clinically investigated and in laboratory. If any reason is not identified after this investigation, then the possibility of tumor existence in the abdomen should be excluded by imaging (CT or MRI).   Source: Hellenic Heart Foundation

Osteoporosis is a silent disease, i.e. it does not present symptoms for a long time. This means that several years pass during which osteoporosis is getting worse in terms of loss of bone mass and microarchitectural disorders of bone structure, until the first sign appears which is fracture. Osteoporosis is a disease of all bone, and therefore fractures may occur in different positions of the skeleton, but they usually occur in the vertebrae, the neck of the femur and the forearm. Specifically, approximately 40% of osteoporotic fractures concern the spine, 20% the femoral neck, 20% the forearm and 20% various other bones. Fractures of the femoral neck and forearm always occur after a minor injury, e.g. a fall from upright position, and they are always accompanied by pain. On the contrary, vertebral fractures often occur without prior trauma and several times they do not include pain in the back or in the waist. Loss of height and kyphosis are late symptoms of osteoporosis due to vertebral fractures.   Source: Hellenic Rheumatology Institute

People who are more likely to develop diabetes (type II) are:

  • overweight and obese people(BMI or BMI>25 Kg/m²)
  • Those who lead a sedentary lifestyle
  • Those with impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetic patients)
  • Those with a first-degree relative with diabetes
  • Women who have gestational diabetes or birth infants weighing more than 4 kg
  • Women with polycystic ovary syndrome
  • hypertensive people (BP>140/90mmHg)
  • Those who have low levels of good cholesterol (HDL<35mg/dl) and elevated triglycerides (>250 mg/dl) as well as patients with a history of vascular disease (e.g. angina, stroke, coronary heart disease, stroke)
Source: Hellenic Endocrine Society

The diagnosis of diabetes is based on the following three criteria: 1. Symptoms of hyperglycemia and random plasma glucose value> = 200mg / dl. In symptomatology polydipsia, polyuria and unexplained weight loss are assessed. As random is characterized glucose value measured in blood at any time of the day and regardless of the time of the first meal. ή 2. Fasting plasma glucose >=126mg/dl Fasting is defined as no lunch for at least 8 hours. ή 3. Positive test glucose tolerance Plasma glucose 2 hours after the oral administration of glucose 75 gr> = 200mg / dl. If there is any doubt about the diagnosis, the final criterion is the Glucose Tolerance Test   Source: Greek Diabetes Association

They are exactly the same as with the younger hypertensive patients, e.g. A 75-year-old person with blood pressure above 140/90mmHg in repeated measurements is considered hypertensive. The doctor will decide if and when he is going to administer antihypertensive drugs.

According to the guidelines adopted by the European Society of Hypertension and by the Hellenic Society for the Study of Hypertension, the pressure classification for adults appears in the following table: Source: Hellenic Society for the Study of Hypertension This classification is based on the pressure measurements on at least two visits to the doctor. At each visit two measurements should be made after a few minutes of rest in a sitting position.

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Chronic Diseases
Arterial hypertension, Arterial hypertension Diabetes, COPD